General Chemistry

In these practice problems, we will work on determining the Lewis structures of molecules and ions.

In short, remember these steps for determining the Lewis structure:

1. Write the correct skeletal structure for the molecule.

        *   Hydrogen atoms are always terminal (only one bond)

        *   Put more electronegative elements in terminal positions

2. Sum the valence electrons from all the atoms.

3. Use a pair of electrons to form a bond between each pair of bound atoms.

4. Add the remaining electrons to satisfy the octet for a more electronegative atom first.

5. If any atoms lack an octet, make a double or triple bond to give them an octet.

 

Practice

1.

Determine the Lewis structures of the following molecules:

 

(a) BF3(b) CH2O(c) HCN(d) BeCl2(e) CH2Cl2
(f) SOCl2(g) SO2(h) PCl5(i) XeO4(j) NCl3
(k) SiCl4(l) SF2(m) H2S(n) SO3(o) COCl2
(p) PCl3(q) OF2(r) BrF5(s) N2O(t) SF6
(u) POCl3(x) XeF2(y) XeF4(z) C2H2
a)
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b)
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c)
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d)
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e)
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f)
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g)
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h)
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i)
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j)
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k)
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l)
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m)
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n)
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o)
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p)
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q)
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r)
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s)
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t)
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u)
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v)
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w)
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x)
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y)
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z)
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2.

Determine the Lewis structure of each ion: (a) NH4+, (b) H3O+, (c) CN (d) SCN, (e) CO32-, (f) ClO3, (g) SO42- (h) PO43- (i) SO32 (j) NO2 (k) BF4 (l) NO3.

 

(a) NH4+(b) H3O+(c) CN (d) SCN(e) CO32-
(f) ClO3(g) SO42-(h) PO43-(i) SO32(j) NO2
(k) BF4 (l) NO3
a)
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b)
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c)
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d)
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e)
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f)
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g)
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h)
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i)
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j)
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k)
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l)
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3.

Lewis structures of Organic Compounds

Select the correct Lewis structure for the formula C3H8

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4.

Select the correct Lewis structure for the formula C2H2

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5.

Select the correct Lewis structure for each of the following carbocation:

C3H7+

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6.

Identify the correct Lewis structure:

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7.

Identify an acceptable Lewis structure for the following compound:

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8.

Select a structure(s) that contains an atom with an incomplete octet:

 

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9.

Which atom is missing a lone pair in the following structure?

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10.

All of these are correct Lewis structures except:

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