## pH and pKa Relationship

The Henderson–Hasselbalch equation shows the correlation of the pKa and pH of the buffer solution. The pKa of a given acid, or the conjugate acid of the base, is constant and therefore, the only variable in the equation is the … Read more

## The Common Ion Effect

The common ion effect is an example of the Le Châtelier’s principle when altering the equilibrium by changing the concentration of a component. Remember, adding a reactant produces more product by shifting the equilibrium to the right, and adding a product, … Read more

## Preparing a Buffer with a Specific pH

In the previous post, we talked about the pH of buffer solutions and the two approaches to calculating it. Let’s now discuss how to prepare a buffer with a given pH. So, we need to choose a proper acid/base pair … Read more

## The Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation

The Henderson–Hasselbalch equation relates the pH of a buffer solution to the initial concentration of its components. Let’s say we have a buffer containing the generic weak acid HA and its conjugate base A–. The dissociation of the acid can … Read more

## The pH of a Buffer Solution

There are two ways of calculating the pH of a buffer solution; the equilibrium approach and the one using the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation. The latter is shorter and is used more often. However, let’s start with the equilibrium approach so that … Read more